GNU/Linux man pages

Livre :
Expressions régulières,
Syntaxe et mise en oeuvre :

ISBN : 978-2-7460-9712-4
EAN : 9782746097124
(Editions ENI)


CentOS 2.1AS







ls − list directory contents


ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...


List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of −cftuSUX nor −−sort.
, −−all

do not hide entries starting with .

−A, −−almost−all

do not list implied . and ..

−b, −−escape

print octal escapes for nongraphic characters


use SIZE-byte blocks

−B, −−ignore−backups

do not list implied entries ending with ~


with −lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information) with −l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime


list entries by columns


control whether color is used to distinguish file types. WHEN may be ’never’, ’always’, or ’auto’

−d, −−directory

list directory entries instead of contents

−D, −−dired

generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode


do not sort, enable −aU, disable −lst

−F, −−classify

append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries


across −x, commas −m, horizontal −x, long −l, single-column −1, verbose −l, vertical −C


list both full date and full time



−G, −−no−group

inhibit display of group information

−h, −−human−readable

print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)


likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024


same as ’--si’ for now; soon to change to conform to POSIX

−−indicator−style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:

none (default), classify (-F), file-type (-p)

−i, −−inode

print index number of each file

−I, −−ignore=PATTERN

do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

−k, −−kilobytes

like −−block−size=1024


use a long listing format

−L, −−dereference

list entries pointed to by symbolic links


fill width with a comma separated list of entries

−n, −−numeric−uid−gid

list numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names

−N, −−literal

print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control characters specially)


use long listing format without group info

−p, −−file−type

append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries

−q, −−hide−control−chars

print ? instead of non graphic characters


show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is ’ls’ and output is a terminal)

−Q, −−quote−name

enclose entry names in double quotes


use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape

−r, −−reverse

reverse order while sorting

−R, −−recursive

list subdirectories recursively

−s, −−size

print size of each file, in blocks


sort by file size


extension −X, none −U, size −S, time −t, version −v

status −c, time −t, atime −u, access −u, use −u


show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status; use specified time as sort key if −−sort=time


sort by modification time

−T, −−tabsize=COLS

assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8


with −lt: sort by, and show, access time with −l: show access time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time


do not sort; list entries in directory order


sort by version

−w, −−width=COLS

assume screen width instead of current value


list entries by lines instead of by columns


sort alphabetically by entry extension


list one file per line


display this help and exit


output version information and exit

By default, color is not used to distinguish types of files. That is equivalent to using −−color=none. Using the −−color option without the optional WHEN argument is equivalent to using −−color=always. With −−color=auto, color codes are output only if standard output is connected to a terminal (tty).


Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.


Report bugs to <bug-fileutils@gnu.org>.


Copyright © 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the command

info ls

should give you access to the complete manual.